Identification of biomarkers for therapeutic response, toxicity prediction, and disease prognosis is a major focus of Dr. Tarhini’s research. He led efforts that demonstrated that S100B is a significant prognostic marker in melanoma and reported on a serum signature consisting of TNFRII, TGFa, TIMP1, and CRP that is prognostic of worse survival. He also recently reported that an early-on treatment signature of pro-inflammatory serum markers (IL2Ra, IL-12p40, and IFNa) significantly predicted survival in patients treated with adjuvant IFNa2b. Dr. Tarhini led neoadjuvant studies of immune checkpoint blockade and reported significant mechanistic findings in the circulation and the tumor microenvironment with therapeutic predictive value. These and other related significant biomarker findings have formed the basis for his recently renewed NIH-funded Skin Cancer SPORE Biomarker Project nested within the US Intergroup E1609 adjuvant phase III trial, where Dr. Tarhini is testing the therapeutic predictive value of markers of the pro-inflammatory immune response and immune suppression within the circulation and the TME based on common-systems biology. As a clinical and translational physician-scientist, a major objective of Dr. Tarhini’s research is focused on overcoming melanoma immune tolerance through combinations of novel immunotherapeutic strategies that involve cytokines and inhibitors of unique checkpoints of immune regulation (UPCI 05-125, E3611, UPCI 11-063, UPCI 14-102, UPCI 15-113). He is the chair of US Intergroup E1609 adjuvant trial testing ipilimumab at 3 or 10 mg/kg versus IFNa, and co-chair of Intergroup S1404 anti-PD1 adjuvant trial. He is co-chair of E3612 and EA6141 trials testing novel combinations targeting immune checkpoints.